Schizophrenia Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings

Yu, Y – Schizophrenia Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings FINAL.pptx
Schizophrenia: Pathogenesis and Clinical FindingsDelusions(Fixed, false beliefs out of keeping with cultural background)? dopaminergic transmission in mesocortical projection? dopaminergic transmission in mesolimbic projection Author: Yan YuReviewers:Sara Meunier Briana CassettaJoAnna FayPhilip Stokes** MD at time of publicationLegend:Published November 5, 2013 on www.thecalgaryguide.comMechanismPathophysiologySign/Symptom/Lab FindingComplicationsGenetics (50% monozygotic twin risk, 6-13% 1st degree relative risk)Speech disorganization or senselessness (Tangentiality, derailment, word salads)Dopaminergic neurons here project into the limbic system, responsible for behaviors and emotions.SchizophreniaDopamine Hypothesis(predominant theory)Other biological theories (under investigation)High “Expressed Emotion”: living in an environment with extensive negative comments expressed towards the patient (? risk of relapse)Hallucinations(Sensations without stimuli; usually auditory in schizophrenia)Grossly disorganized motor behavior including catatonia (unresponsive to environment)Negative Symptoms (Diminished emotional expression, affective flattening, alogia, avolition, diminution of thoughts, asociality)Abnormalities of neurotransmitter (mainly dopamine) transmission in various regions of the brainAbnormal dopamine transmission here is thought to cause the Positive Symptoms of SchizophreniaDopaminergic neurons here project into the cerebral cortex (i.e. frontal lobes), responsible for thinking, decision-making, language production, and mood)Abnormal dopamine transmission here is thought to cause Negative Symptoms of SchizophreniaNotes: Although schizophrenia was largely thought to be caused by biological factors, we now recognize increasing roles of psychological factors (i.e. cognitive biases) and social factors (i.e. social stress or isolation) in its etiology.Neuropsychological deficits are also seen in schizophrenia: deficits in memory, psychomotor abilities, attention, and difficulty with mental flexibility
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