Pathogenesis of Anxiety Disorders

Yu, Y – Pathogenesis of Anxiety Disorders FINAL.pptx
Stress hormones interact with brain and body in various complicated mechanismsAnxiety Disorders: Pathogenesis of AnxietyPhysiological arousalAuthor: Yan YuReviewers:Sara Meunier JoAnna FayDex ArnoldMargaret Oakander* MD at time of publicationLegend:Published October 28, 2013 on www.thecalgaryguide.comMechanismPathophysiologySign/Symptom/Lab FindingComplicationsGenetics (Positive family history)Sense of foreboding or apprehensionActivation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex axisPredisposition to anxiety: Imbalance and/or abnormal functioning of norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Female gender (may be related to hormonal factors, less internal locus of control, greater reporting rates)Other biological theories (under investigation)Prefrontal Cortex modulation of amygdala impairedUnpleasant tensionAmygdala maladaptively activates fear response? Cortisol releaseChronic activation of stress hormones over time causes death of neurons in the hippocampusAnxiety Disorders:A maladaptive emotional state causing fear, worry, and excessive stress, characterized by:Perceived environmental threatHippocampus and Cingulate Gyrus abnormally process threatActivation of autonomic nervous system and adrenal medulla? Epinephrine releaseHippocampus shrinks in sizeAbility of hippocampus to normally integrate environmental stimuli is further compromisedMood dysregulationMemory impairmentStrong association between anxiety disorders and depressionMeasurable ? in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF)BDNF value correlates with the degree of neuronal loss in the hippocampus
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