Isolated Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury Pathogenesis and clinical findings

Isolated’ Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury: Pathogenesis and clinical findings
I` knee joint laxity, hamstring weakness, smaller ACL, BMI, impaired proprioception, muscle weakness/ fatigue, female gender
Intrinsic Risk Factors
Foot is planted & 1` torque applied to knee joint (valgus force)
Contact Trauma
Sudden change in direction (cutting)
1
4, Energy Trauma
* MD at
I` traction — whether due to shoe type or playing surface (e.g., synthetic gym floors)
Extrinsic Risk Factors
Pivoting or landing with a rotation or lateral bending
Non-contact Trauma (70%)
ACL Injury
Author: Amy Rudkoski Reviewers: Reza Ojaghi Usama Malik Dr. R. Buckley* time of publication
Motor Vehicle Collision (MVC)2
1` Energy Trauma
Feeling a
Acute swelling
Pain deep Instability: feels like in knee knee is “giving out”
Inability to continue activity
Pain and swelling may improve in a few weeks but instability will be there
1 Often associated with meniscal tear 2 It usually associated with injuries to other structure in the knee 3 Most sensitive test to detect ACL tear
Legend:
Pathophysiology Mechanism
+ Lachman’s testa + Pivot Shift test + Anterior Drawer test